Mexico

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Mexico
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal constitutional republic located in North America. The country is bordered to the north by the United States to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize and the Caribbean Sea, to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.
Mexico is a federation composed of thirty-one states and one federal district (Federal District). Mexico is also the second most populous and richest country in Latin America, in both cases surpassed only by Brazil.
In pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, many cultures have matured and become advanced civilizations such as the Olmecs, Toltecs, Teotihuacans, Zapotec, Mayans and Aztecs before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the Mexican territory from its base in Tenochtitlán and administered it as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would become Mexico with the recognition of the independence of the colony in 1821. The post-independence period was marked by economic instability, the Mexican-American War and the consequent territorial assignment to the United States, a civil war, two empires and a national dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, culminating in the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency of the Institutional Revolutionary Party.
Official language
Spanish
Currency
Mexican peso
Documentation
To enter Mexico you must have the following documents and conditions:

Valid national passport or internationally recognized valid travel document
Tourist entrance visa (except for European Community countries and others).
 Valid return travel ticket and sufficient funds during your stay.

Holders of travel documents such as a Certificate of Identity, Laisser Passer, Titre de Voyage or Certificate of a Country of Permanent Residence must ensure that their return to the country that issued the document or the country of residence is guaranteed.
Documents must be valid for more than six (6) months from the date of entry into Mexico.
Taking into account the various conditions required for entry into Mexico, it is suggested that you contact the Mexican Embassy or Consulate in the country of residence of the visitor to verify these requirements before starting your trip.
Tourism
Mexico is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Much of the tourism industry is centered around beach resorts as well as the altiplano in the central part of the country.
Regions of Mexico and its tourist attractions
Baja California. The western peninsula, which borders the American state of California.
Northern Mexico. The deserts and mountains of the border states are generally ignored by tourists. This is Mexico Unknown
O Bajio. States in a traditional mining region.
Central Mexico. Around the capital Mexico City
Pacific coast. Tropical beaches on the south coast of Mexico
Yucatan Peninsula. Jungle and impressive Mayan archaeological sites along with the Caribbean coast.
Major cities for tourism in Mexico and its tourist attractions
Mexico City - Capital of the Republic, one of the three largest cities in the world, and a sophisticated urban center with 700 years of history. In Mexico City, you'll find everything from parks, Aztec ruins, colonial architecture, museums, nightlife and shopping.
Acapulco - A sophisticated beach known for its first-class nightlife.
Cancun - One of the most popular beaches in the world, known for its clear waters of the Caribbean, its lively atmosphere, and its wealth of recreational facilities.
Gastronomy
Mexican cuisine can best be described as a collection of several regional cuisines rather than a standard list of typical foods for the entire country.

Due to climate, geography and ethnic differences, we can classify Mexican cuisine widely in 4 major categories according to the region:

North - Mainly meat dishes made mostly from goat's meat. This includes Cabrito, Carne Asada and Arrachera. It is influenced by international cuisine (mainly from the United States and Europe), but retains the essential Mexican flavor.
Central - This region is influenced by the rest of the country, but has its local flavor developed in typical foods like Pozole, Menudo and Carnitas. The dishes are mainly based on corn and different spices.
Southeast - Known for its spicy vegetables and chicken dishes. Caribbean cuisines have influences here because of the location.
Coast - It is heavily composed of clams and fish, but recipes with corn can be easily found as well.

The typical traditional Mexican food can often be spicy, so be careful if you are not accustomed to the peppers.

Some typical Mexican foods include:
Chicharrón - Skin of fried pork. Very crispy and, if well prepared, slightly oily.
Enchiladas - Soft tortillas stuffed with chicken or meat and topped with green, red or soft sauce. Some may have melted cheese.
Tacos - Tortillas stuffed with meat, shredded chicken, carnitas (shredded fried pork), tongue, head (meat of the cow's skull).
Tamales - Corn pasta with meat or vegetable fillings.
Quesadillas - Cheese or other ingredients grilled between tortillas.
Carnitas - Fried pork.
Weather
Mexico is a country with great climatic diversity. The relief and presence of the oceans greatly influence its configuration, so it is possible to find cold climates in the high mountains only a few hundred kilometers from the higher temperatures of the coastal plain. On average, the temperature varies between 25 ° C and 30 ° C, being warm between May and September, especially on the coast, and cold between October and early May. According to its temperature, the climate can be classified as hot and temperate and according to existing moisture as moist, sub-humid and very dry.

The sub-humid or semi-dry temperate climate reaches temperatures ranging from 10 ° C to 20 ° C and their presence depends on the latitude of the region, with frost being an annual constant, generally more common in the north of the country and in mountainous areas . The humid temperate climate registers temperatures between 18 ° C and 22 ° C.
Safety
Mexico has a security problem, with a high incidence of crime related to kidnapping, extortion and robbery on public roads and public transport. Although foreign tourists are rarely victims of kidnapping or extortion, they may be robberies or robberies.
 
Therefore, it is advisable to take the necessary precautions, namely:
- avoid showing outward signs of wealth;
- avoid showing in public documents, credit cards or money in cash, mobile phones or high-value cameras;
- do not carry high amounts of money or credit cards expendable;
- avoid, as far as possible, the use of over-exposed cash dispensers (prefer boxes within shopping centers and supermarkets);
- for residents, obtain references from domestic service providers and other employees;
- in high-risk areas, frequently change routes / routes in usual journeys;
- to pay constant attention to the environment in which he / she is traveling and to the persons with whom he / she crosses the street;
- identify if there are people who are usually on the road or if there is someone or something unusual that draws attention for some reason;
- do not enter or leave the house or the hotel without first checking the entrance and who is there;
- drive vehicles that are not flashy;
- in areas of high risk, to avoid, as far as possible, the use of all-terrain vehicles in urban areas;
- in the event of attempted theft of the vehicle, do not oppose any resistance;
- in the event that road traffic is proving impossible, due to roadblocks by criminals, to remain calm, not to resist the criminals and to avoid making phone calls when visibly exposed;
- if you are in the middle of a shooting, you should lie on the ground and remain still, with your hands visible, until you are finished (if you are inside the vehicle and there is the possibility of parking at the side of the road public, it is advisable to hide inside it, without leaving, seeking to protect the head);
- do not take any action that might lead the participants to believe in the shooting that carries a weapon;
- not to be involved in cases of dubious legality, thus avoiding situations of extortion, abduction or aggression of any kind;
- If you receive threatening telephone calls, you should not hold the conversation or give any information, and you should disconnect the phone as soon as possible (try to memorize the telephone number from which you received the call and inform the Embassy or the Honorary Consulate of corresponding area, on what happened).
 
It is also recommended that, after paying with credit cards, carefully check the corresponding bank statements, taking into account the large number of cases of card cloning.
 
On beaches (Pacific as well as the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico) it is not recommended to bathe in solitary areas, and the flag's indications on the state of the sea should be respected.

Earthquakes
Mexico has an important seismic activity. The areas of highest seismic activity are found on the Pacific coast and in the capital itself, Mexico City. It is therefore recommended to adopt a set of attitudes to follow before, during and after a seismic movement of high magnitude.
 
Volcanoes
In Mexico there are some active volcanoes. The most active is the Popocatepetl.

Hurricanes
The Atlantic and Pacific hurricane season officially begins on June 1 and ends on November 30, but the most troublesome period typically occurs in August and October. Particular caution is advised in the preparation of trips, especially when the destination is located in the Yucatan peninsula (Cancún and Riviera Maya)
 
In the event of a hurricane approach, carefully follow the instructions of the Federal Civil Protection and those of each State.
Health care
No vaccine is required from the traveler.
 
It is extremely convenient to travel to Mexico with the widest possible medical insurance, with extensive coverage of medical expenses during the entire stay and that includes repatriation or medical evacuation to Portugal. In fact, there is quality medical care in the country, but the service is very expensive and should be paid by the interested party if you do not have medical insurance. Even if medical insurance is available, it is customary to pay for the treatment in advance, at the request of the hospital, and the person concerned should subsequently request their reimbursement from the insurance company.
 
In general, the sanitary conditions are quite good, although it is recommended to always drink bottled water, avoid the food sold in the street by street vendors and wash the fruit and vegetables well.
Telecommunications and Electricity
Mobile Phones

The use of mobile devices can be used if roaming is enabled, however, paying attention to very high roaming charges.

Internet
Mexico is well served by internet services, there are several cybers-cafes with high-speed connections.
In case you have a laptop or notebook, there are numerous cafes that offer the free wi-fi connection.

Electricity
The electricity is 110 Volt 60 Hz.
It is advisable to have a kit of adapters for the sockets and converter of current for the equipment that operates to 220V.

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