China

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China
China, founded in 1912 as the Republic of China, preceded by the Qing Dynasty, is now called the People's Republic of China, being a sovereign country located in East Asia.
It is the most populous country in the world, with a population of more than 1.35 billion inhabitants.
The People's Republic of China is a single-party state ruled by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital in Beijing (Beijing).
The country has jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and two autonomous special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macao).
The PRC maintains the claim that Taiwan - which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity - is its 23rd province, a claim that is controversial because of Taiwan's complex political state.
Spanning about 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the second largest country in the world in territorial area, and either the third or fourth largest by total area, depending on the measurement method.
The landscape of China is vast and diverse, ranging from verdant plains and deserts of Gobi Taklamakan in the arid north to the humid tropical forests in the south.
The Himalayas, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan are mountains separating South China from Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, respectively the third and sixth largest rivers in the world, with springs in the Tibetan plateau flow towards the densely populated east coast.
The coast of China along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 miles) long.
Official language
Mandarin
Currency
Renminbi
Tourism
China is an Eastern country full of mystery and imagination, welcoming immense tourists from all over the world. This time-honored country has immense cultural and natural attractions waiting to be explored.
Among the many wonders that can be visited are the Great Wall of China, one of the great wonders of the world, a monumental work of the first monarch Qin Shi Huang. His tomb is in Xi'an, guarded by the mysterious terracotta army, and much remains to be excavated. One of the extremes of the mythical silk route, Xi'an still treasures such as its walled city, drum towers bell and venerable temples.
It was considered as a cultural patrimony of humanity by UNESCO in 1987 and has become a national icon of China.
Another beauty, is the Forbidden City built about 600 years ago, having played an important role in Chinese history. It was the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties of Emperor Yongle.
In this palace the tourist can glimpse the life of the ancient emperors. There are more than 8000 rooms in the palace. The Forbidden City has the largest collection of old preserved wooden structures in the world.
Another popular tourist destination, the famous Summer Palace is the largest and best preserved royal garden in China. It is a mixture of natural landscapes and artificial landscape. The mountains, water and architecture together form picturesque scenes that are unbelievably beautiful. UNESCO declared the Summer Palace, a masterpiece of Chinese landscaping. The natural landscape of hills and water is combined with artificial elements such as pavilions, halls, palaces, temples and bridges to form a harmonious ensemble of great aesthetic value.
Formed by lines of siheyuan, traditional courtyard residences, the Hutongs are a kind of narrow streets or alleys. Hutongs are not only part of the Beijing residences but also an indispensable part of Chinese culture. It is a unique feature of old Beijing, which surprises. The known Hutong areas are Shichahai and South Gong and the Tambor track.
Lama Temple (Yonghe Palace) in Beijing, built in Tibetan style in 1694. It was the residence of Prince Manchu Haze, who became Emperor Yongzheng in 1723. The place then became an imperial palace. The temple houses a large number of Buddhist relics and other precious things.
Next to the coast are three symbols of the new China. The avant-garde Shanghai engine of economic power of the country, noted for its grandiose contemporary buildings that minimize the historical Bund.
Towards the south is Macau, with Portuguese influences far away, where gigantic casinos compete with the sidewalks and buildings that give a certain typical air to the city. Not far away is the bustling Hong Kong, scene of classic kung-fu movies, vertical on the lines of its skyscrapers, horizontal on the seafront that divides Kowloon from Victoria Island.
The immense Chinese territorial dimension takes us from the northeast Manchus to the Himalayan Tibetans, from the Kashgar Muslims to the Han workers on the strip by the sea.
Gastronomy
The different provinces of China contributed to the history of Chinese cuisine.
Each regional cuisine varies significantly in terms of style of food preparation. Buddhist and Muslim culinary specialties are also part of the immense Chinese cuisine.
Fish are usually served whole and diners are adept at removing pieces of fish using their chopsticks.
Chicken is another favorite meat dish in many Chinese meals. While the chicken is cut into pieces, each piece is served including the gizzards and head.
In a Chinese meal, each individual is provided with a bowl of rice, while the complementary dishes are served in shared plates or bowls.
The famous Cantonese cuisine, perhaps the most representative of China in the world, full of delicious dim-sums, small and varied dishes prepared in different forms. Another gastronomic style appreciated is that of Sichuan, fragrant, pungent and very, very seasoning. To keep up with all this, nothing like a cup of high quality tea.
Hot tea or hot water is commonly served in a Chinese meal. Cold drinks such as soft drinks or water are considered harmful to the digestion of hot foods.
Tea is regarded as a good digestive of fatty foods.
By the way, tea, is probably the most widespread Chinese word on the planet, turning into tea, tea, the, chai, tsái and many other variations in dozens of other languages.
Weather
China, being a vast territory covering several latitudes and geographically diversified, has a climate that varies radically depending on the zones, from its temperatures and rainfall, including the continental monsoon zones.
In winter, most areas become cold and dry in the hot and rainy summer.
Five temperature zones
Temperatures vary greatly. Influenced by different activities in different latitudes and monsoons, in winter, a cold 0 ° C current crosses the Huaihe River, the Qinling Mountains, the southeast of Qinghai and the Tibet Plateau.
Northern areas have temperatures below 0ºC, and the south temperatures above 0ºC.
Mohe in Heilongjiang can reach on average -30 ° C, while the temperature of Sanya in Hainan Province reaches temperatures above 20 ° C.
In the summer, most areas have temperatures above 20 ° C, even those found in the upper Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and other mountains, such as Tianshan.
Among these hot spots, the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang is on average the center of intense heat at 32ºC.
Cold Zone:
Northern part of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia (City: Harbin).
Zone Amena:
Jilin, northern Xinjiang, and more than Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia (cities: Beijing, Shenyang, Dalian, Urumqi, Hohhot, Dunhuang, Lanzhou).
Hot Zone:
Area of ​​the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, Shandon, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Hebei (cities: Xian, Taiyuan, Luoyan, Jinan, Qingdao, Zhengzhou).
Subtropical Zone:
South of Qinling Mountain, Huaihe River, east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (cities: Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Macao, Guilin, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Kunming, Dali, Lijiang, Chengdu)
Tropical Zone:
Hainan Province, South Taiwan, Guangdong, and Yunnan Province (cities: Haikou, Sanya)
The rainfall in China is basically regular, every year.
In the most rainy zone, Huoshaoliao in Taipei, the average annual rainfall can reach more than 6,000 mm. Rainy seasons are mainly May through September. In some areas, especially in the dry northeast, changes in precipitation each year are greater than in the coastal zone. Based on precipitation, the area is divided into four parts: wetland, semi-wetland, semi-dryland, and dryland.
Monsoon:
In summer, the monsoon southeastern western Pacific Ocean and a southwest monsoon of the equatorial Indian Ocean blow towards the Chinese mainland. These monsoons are the main cause of rainfall.
From April and May, the monsoons, (rainy season of summer), reach the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan.
Northern part of the country receives its rainy season in July and August decreasing in September and gradually in October the summer monsoons end.
Documentation
For those who wish to enter China as a tourist, a tourist visa (Visa L) is required, and in order to apply, you need the following documents:

1. Passport valid for a minimum of 6 (six) months of validity until the date of leaving China, with at least one blank page for the visa application.
2. Visa application form.
3. A recent photo of passport type (black and white or color is acceptable) along with the application form.

To apply for a Tourist Visa you must contact the Embassy or Consulate-General, which has consular jurisdiction in the country of residence.
The normal processing time is 4 working days.


Usually, the validity of an L visa (single entry or double entry) is 90 days or 180 days from the date of issue. This means that the visa holder must enter China no later than 90 days or 180 days from the date of issue, otherwise the visa will lose its validity.
Usually the length of stay for an L visa is 30 days, which means that the visa holder can stay in China for up to 30 days from the date of entry. If your stay in China is estimated to be longer than 30 days, it should be made clear in the application form and ask for your approval of the official Visa when making the application.
All standards are subject to change without notice.
Health care
There are no mandatory vaccines to enter China, but it is advisable to get vaccinated against tetanus and polio, and you must fill out a form that states that you do not have any infectious diseases.
It is advisable to take tablets for colds or intestinal infection, sunscreen and mosquito repellent.
Consult your doctor for more information.
You should make private health insurance that covers your entire stay.
Electricity
Most plugs support types A and I at the same time. Some plugs support type C as well (the holes in the sockets are flat in the middle and round in the sides) so that plugs A, C or I (without be used.
A second type I (grounded) jack is attached to the multi type jack. Type A sockets only fit plugs with pins of the same width. A polarized type A plug requires an adapter.
No matter the type of outlet, the electrical voltage in China is always 220 volts and 50 Hz.
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